Genealogy and Birth
the father, and Hina the mother. Kaliuwa'a, in Kaluanui, Ko'olauloa, was
the land of Kamapua'a's birth. Kamapua'a was born in the form of a cord.
His parents wanted to throw him away, but his grandmother Kamaunuaniho
and his brother Kekeleiaku kept him on a kuahu (altar) and worshipped
One day, he grew into
his pig form. When he saw his mother go up Kaliuwa'a stream to bathe,
he followed her and revealed his identity with a chant:
Here is Kamaunuaniho,
Who brought forth into daylight,
Hina, who gave birth to a human,
The child of Kahiki'ula
Who lives in the upland of 'Oilowai
Calls to his mother,
"Dawn is here, dawn is here, there will be light,"
He waits for the morning star,
To rise above Hihimanu,
In the darkness,
A thin streak of light appears,
The wind blows faintly,
The hillside forest is gray,
Here at the pit at Pohakueaea,
Here, here I am, the pig-child,
Discarded by you two,
Abandoned by you two.
Here I am, a rainy wind [kuaua makani]
Blowing over Hanakaumalu,
Soaking the coastal lands, calming broad Kahiki,
The clouds over the uplands stand in pairs,
In the uplands, let us two live,
In the forests of Kaliuwa'a,
Where the water is bailed out,
By the pig who drinks foul water,
My name is a mystery!
His mother heard this
chant and was delighted by it, but did not know who was chanting to her.
When she went into the water to bathe, Kamapua'a laid down on her pa'u
(skirt made of kapa). She found him, wrapped him in the pa'u
and took him home. He thrashed about, tearing the pa'u,
but she held on tightly. Inside the enclosure, she let the pig go and
told her two sons, Kekeleiaiku and Kaikihonuakele, that the one who caught
the pig could keep it. Kekeleiaiku caught the pig. Kaikihonuakele suggested
they eat it, but his brother refused.
When Kekeleiaiku showed
the pig to his grandmother Kamaunuaniho, she told him "That's your
younger brother, the one we placed on the kuahu." She taught him
how to call his brother to eat: "E Haunuu [Proud ruling-chief],
E Haulani [Royal ruling-chief], come and eat." This was how
Kekeleiaiku called the pig to eat until the pig was full grown.
One day the people
of Kaluanui went to plant their taro. Kamapua'a took his grandmother's
taro shoots from his brother Kekeleiaiku and carried them up to her taro
patch named La'auhaele above Kaluanui. There he planted them for her.(b)
Battles with 'Olopana's Warriors")
of the O'ahu adventures of Kamapua'a is from the Fornander Collection
of Hawaiian Folklore and Antiquities (Vol. V, 314-327; with English
and Hawaiian texts on facing pages). A second version, by G.W. Kahiolo,
published serially in the newspaper Ka Hae Hawaii from 1856-1861, was
translated by Esther T. Mookini and Erin C. Neizman as He Moolelo o
Kamapua'a /The Story of Kamapua'a ; a translation of this version
by Mary Kawena Pukui in typed manuscript form is available at the Bishop
Museum Archives. A third version of the Kamapua'a story, originally published
in Hawaiian in 1891 in Ka Leo o Ka Lahui, was translated
and annotated by Lilikala Kame'eleihiwa and published as A Legendary
Tradition of Kamapua'a, The Hawaiian Pig God. A fourth version can
be found in Nakuina's Hawaii: Its People, Their Legends. An excellent
discussion of the Hawaiian traditions of Kamapua'a has been published
by John Charlot:The Kamapua'a Literature: The Classical Traditons of
the Hawaiian Pig God as a Body of Literature. Tava Taupu, a native
of Nukuhiva in the Marquesas Islands, says that the Hawaiian pig-god Kamapua'a
is the same as Makaiaanui, the pig-god of his homeland (Langridge 32-35).
Kahiolo presents the following details of Kamapua'a's genealogy. The pig-god's
family is said to have come from Kahiki (a foreign land) to where, according
to one tradition, the pig-man eventually returned.
the husband, was from Waihe'e, Maui, and Humahuma, the wife, was from
Kuaihelani, Kahiki. To the couple was born a female child, Kamauluaniho
[Kamaunuaniho in the Fornander and other versions]. She was brought
up in the uplands of Waihe'e by special caretakers and grew up to be
a beautiful woman. Humahuma had her husband and their daughter become
mates because she wanted to leave them and return to Kahiki. When she
saw the two sleeping together, she left. The father and daughter had
a daughter named Hina. Kamauluaniho promised to give the child as wife
to 'Olopana, the chief of O'ahu.
Hina was carefully
nurtured and became a beautiful woman like her mother. The two women,
Kamauluaniho and Hina, came to O'ahu to fulfill the mother's promise
to give Hina to 'Olopana. The two women, with two servants, arrived
at Pahonu, Waimanalo.
At that time, the
whole island of O'ahu was kapu because 'Olopana's heiau (named Kawa'ewa'e)
was under construction in Kane'ohe. A subject of 'Olopana told
the travelers that O'ahu was kapuno canoe was supposed to land.
Another subject ran to 'Olopana in Kane'ohe and reported to the
chief, "A canoe from Maui has arrived with two servants and two
womentwo beautiful women." The chief told him to return and
kill the servants, but bring the women to him; he thought the beautiful
women could become wives for his younger brother, Kahiki'ula.
The man went back
to the canoe, killed the servants, and brought the women to the chief,
who asked them, "Why have you two come to O'ahu?"
"I promised my daughter here she would be your wife." 'Olopana
looked at her and saw she was beautiful.
He replied, "Let
her marry my younger brother." Kamauluaniho agreed to the match.
Kahiki'ula and Hina
were told they could sleep together. They went to Kaluanui to live.
However, this match was not right in Hina's mind; her mother had promised
her to 'Olopana, not Kahiki'ula. When Kamauluaniho heard Hina protest,
she became angry at her daughter.
But Hina told her
mother: "This is not 'Olopana, the person you promised would be
"You're right. But 'Olopana arranged for you to sleep with this
man, his younger brother."
Hina and Kahiki'ula
slept together and she gave birth to two daughters, Keaokiikii and Keaokauikalaeomakahaloa,
who both died. Later, Kaikihonuakele, a son, was born.
in Kane'ohe for a while. Then he felt a longing to see his younger
brother Kahiki'ula and went to visit him in Kaluanui. There he slept
with Hina, who gave birth to Kekeleiaiku. Then Kahiki'ula and Hina slept
together again, and she gave birth to Kamapua'a.
and Traditions of the People of Old contains a different genealogy
of the Kamapua'a family (111):
Humu, and Ka-maunu-a-niho are said to have come from Kahiki and to have
landed at Kahahawai in Waihe'e, Maui, and to have lived mauka of Wailua.
Kamaunuaniho became the wife of Kalana; Humu returned to Kahiki. Hina
was born to Kamaunuaniho and Kalana--the Hina who married the Kahiki
chief 'Olopana who came to live on O'ahu. The heiau of Kawa'ewa'e in
Kane'ohe, O'ahu, belonged to him. His younger brother was Kahiki'ula.
'Olopana and Hina had Kahiki-o-honuakele, and Hina and Kahiki'ula had
Kelekele-aiku and Kama [Kamapua'a]. They all had Kahiki names
because they came from Kahiki--not Kahiki Bolabola, however, but from
the Kahiki called Keolo'ewa, Ha'enakula'ina, and Kauaniani. Where
these lands were is unknown; perhaps they were in Ke'e-nui-a-Kane.
The pig god was associated with Lono, the god of agriculture, and with
farming and fertility. This was based on the perception that pigs root
in the earth, like a farmer. (Charlot 20-21). Charlot points out that
the pig-god has the attributes of pigs: big, strong, gluttonous, bristly,
noisy, agile, sharp-eyed; also a loner, a wanderer, a trespasser who could
be aggressive and destructive; and sexually potent (13-26). Various episodes
in his tradition depict him as struggling to become more "human."